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看國外:豬場批次化管理系統-4周批,非瘟時期批次化生産更安全
发布时间:2019/10/21 15:53:56 发布者:傲農集團

  本文討論4周批生産系統(4WBF),包括法國在內的一些國家的小型豬場(存欄250頭母豬)中很常見。分析將基于與3周批生産(3WBF)的比較。

  This article discusses 4-week batch farrowing (4WBF), very common in small farms (250 sows) in some other countries, including France. Analysis will be based on a comparison with 3-week batch farrowing (3WBF).

  在當今養豬業中,小型豬場(存欄至500頭母豬)使用超過1周批次的分娩系統是非常普遍的。這些分批分娩系統的優點包括:更好地組織安排豬場工作,以及由于更大的斷奶批次而生産的健康豬只和轉欄(運輸)優勢,時間間隔更長且年齡差異更大。在西班牙最常見的管理是3周批管理系統,平均哺乳期約28天,但有幾種不同類型的分娩産仔系統。

  It is very common, in today's swine industry, to use more-than-1-week batch farrowing systems in small farms (up to 500 productive sows). The advantages on those batch farrowing systems include: better organization of farm tasks, as well as both health and logistic advantages due to the production of larger weaning batches, farther apart in time and with a bigger age difference amongst them. The most common management in Spain is 3-week batch farrowing, with an average lactation length of about 28 days, but there are several different types of batch farrowing systems.

 哺乳期Lactation length

  3周批次生産系統需要28天的哺乳期,而4周批次僅需21天。顯然這是一個重要的變化,在作出決定前,需評估下不同批次化管理的優缺點。

  While 3WBF requires a lactation length of 28 days, 4WBF forces a length of 21 days. Obviously, it is an important change, which advantages and disadvantages have to be assessed before making a decision.

  批次大小Batch size

  4周批母豬分爲5批,比3周批生産系統少2個批次,故每批數量多。舉例來說,一個存欄250頭母豬的豬場在4周批生産系統中,每批約有50頭分娩,而3周批約有36頭分娩。斷奶仔豬之間的年齡差異是4周批爲4周,3周批爲3周。4周批生産的批量更大和年齡差異更大而生産的健康豬只和轉欄(運輸))優勢。例如在自繁自養豬場豬只大批量生産,意味著運輸次數減少,從而顯著改善生物安全等方面。

  4 Week BF results in 5 batches of sows, 2 batches less than 3WBF systems, therefore batch size is bigger. As an example, a 250-sow farm would have about 50 farrowings per batch in 4WBF, and about 36 in 3WBF. Age difference between weaner batches is 4 weeks for 4WBF and three weeks for 3WBF. Bigger batch size and wider age difference between batches of 4WBF will become an advantage in logistics and health terms. As an example, in farrow to finish farms bigger batches would mean sharing fewer slaughter trucks, therefore significantly improving areas such as biosecurity.

  工作计划Task planning

  下表顯示了兩種類型管理的每周主要的工作計劃(配種,M,分娩,F和斷奶,W)。

  The Table below shows weekly planning of main tasks (mating, M, farrowing, F, and weaning, W) for both types of management.

  表1每周工作计划Table 1.- Weekly task planning.


  工作任務在3周批中分布更廣泛。然而在4周批生産中看上去是一個劣勢的確可以是一個優勢:2周可免除最重要的任務(配種,分娩和斷奶),可以幫助更好地安排其他活動,如其他農業勞動,安排假期,培訓,維修工作,一般清潔等...

  Tasks are more widely distributed in 3WBF. However, what appears to be a disadvantage in 4WBF can be an advantage: having 2 weeks free of the most important tasks (matings, farrowings and weaning), can help to better organize other activities such as agricultural tasks, holidays, training, maintenance work, general cleaning, etc...

  設施利用最優化

  Optimization of facilities

  如果我们只考虑母猪设施,不考虑断奶或育肥设施,4周批的一个显著优点是分娩栏的最大化利用:由于每4周分娩一次,哺乳期为3周,所以只需要分娩栏配合一个分娩批次。按照上面的例子,一个250头母猪的猪场,4 周批需要50-55个分娩栏,而3周批则需要75-80个分娩栏。另一方面,4周批次生产需要更多的非生产周期母猪设施,因大批量的断奶母猪(我们必须记住,分娩栏比非生产周期母猪设施更昂贵)

  If we only consider sow accommodation, without considering weaner or finisher facilities, a significant advantage of 4WBF is theoptimum use of farrowing crates: since farrowings take place every 4 weeks, and lactation length is 3 weeks, it only requires farrowing crates to fit one farrowing batch. Following the example above, a 250-sow farm would need 50-55 farrowing crates for 4WBF, instead of 75-80 crates needed if working with 3 week BF. On the other hand, 4WBF would require more dry sow accommodation, since larger batches are weaned, (although we must remember that farrowing crates are always more expensive than dry sow accommodation)

  Table 2.- Farrowing room occupancy weekly planner, E:entry; F: Farrowing: L: lactation; W: Weaning

  表2.-分娩舍每周计划表,E:转入; F:分娩:L:哺乳; W:断奶


 保持批量大小Maintaining bacth size

  另一方面,保持批次完整性是4周批的主要缺點,因爲大多數肛i返情是定期的,故會脫離批次。這個事實迫使豬場在發現返情母豬發情時不能配種。豬場必須通過使用荷爾蒙做同期發情處理,並在下一批次(56天後)或跳過幾次情期,直至其發情組成一批(約84天)。這涉及非生産天數的增加以及由于激素使用而造成的額外成本。顯然,當妊娠結果較好,繁殖障礙較少時,這些負面影響會較小。

  On the other hand, keeping batch integrity is the main drawback of 4WBF, since most returns are regular and would, therefore, fall out of batch. This fact forces the farmer not to service those returns when they are found to be on heat. They must either synchronise them by using hormones and mating them at next batch (after 56 days) or skip several oestrus until their heat fits with a batch ( 84 day approx). This involves an important increase of non-productive days and extra cost due to hormone use. Obviously, when gestation results are better, with fewer reproductive losses, these negative effects will be smaller.

  图1.- 4周批次生产猪场的例子:使用激素规划返情母猪配种。平均返情间隔51.6天

  Graphic 1.- Example of 4WBF farm: planning of return sow mating by use of hormones. Average return interval 51,6 days


  使用代乳母猪Use of nurse sows

  嚴格實施分批分娩使代乳母豬的使用變得困難,特別是在采用4周批次生産時,由于分娩舍中的大部分仔豬幾乎是同齡的。一個可以使用代乳母豬的策略是有一個小的分娩舍,把配種母豬用作代乳母豬。此設施也允許一些脫離批次的母豬配種,盡管這可能會産生負面影響(斷奶批次不嚴格按日齡分離,批次不同)。

  Strict implementation of batch farrowing makes it difficult to use nurse sows, especially when working with 4WBF, since most piglets present at the farrowing house are nearly the same age. A strategy that would allow the use of nurse sows is to have a small farrowing house to place sows mated out of batch that could be used as nurse sows. This facility would also allow mating of some females that fall out of batch, although it could lead to negative effects (not strict separation by age of weaning batches, more heterogeneous batches).

  總之,4周批生産是小型豬場可以考慮的選擇,其與傳統的3周批生産系統相比有不同之處,在每種情況下都應該進行評估。

  As a conclusion, 4-week batch farrowing is a feasible option for small farms to be considered, although there are differences when compared to more traditional 3-week batch farrowing systems that should be assessed in every situation.

  非瘟时期,批次化生产除了有更好的经济表现外, 更少频次的接触母猪与仔猪,将更利于非瘟防控。

 作者:M.A. de Andrés、Elena Vizcaíno、María Aparicio、Carlos Pieiro

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